These demographics reflect the targeted sampling strategies, which aimed for maximum diversity across these variables. Education levels averaged two years of college, but income levels were quite low. Social risk indices were high across all measures, with almost half Depression, anxiety and traumatic stress levels were clinically significant for sizeable proportions of respondents.
More than half Lifetime rates of emotional, physical, and sexual victimization were very high as well, and almost half More than a third Table 2 shows current past 90 day substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Participants were current users of a wide range of substances, including: The sample reported being high or drunk all day on an average of 24 out of the past 90 days data not shown.
Participants averaged over 12 different anal sex partners and over 18 unprotected anal intercourse events with non primary partners in the past 90 days.
Arrest histories by type of crime are shown in Table 3. The distribution of crimes was widespread across all categories, including property and violent crimes in addition to the drug violations that would be expected given the study eligibility criteria. Property crimes were primarily related to aspects of theft rather than destruction. Status crimes included a number of subcategories that are or are possibly e.
Of the 81 participants with arrest histories, just 25 Among those with multiple arrests, few Almost all of the hypothesized mental health and social risk indices are significant in the bivariate models, with substance abuse treatment history, cocaine use and a lower level of education demonstrating the most powerful effects. Prior victimization, including a history of physical abuse and childhood abuse, increase the likelihood of having been arrested, as did higher levels of mental health distress, including sexual sensation seeking. In multivariate models, substance abuse treatment, use of cocaine, high sex sensation seeking and lower education level emerged as strong independent predictors of prior arrest.
In additional bivariate analyses not show in the table, these same variables generally predicted each of the four types of arrests property, violent, drug, and status crimes separately. The only areas in which the four specialized models meaningfully diverged from the overall arrest history model were: These results may be due to the loss of power available for the analyses of predictors by type of crime.
There are two primary limitations to the study. Also, the data presented here rely on self-report, and some respondents may have refrained from reporting the full extent of socially undesirable behaviors. Given the extensive substance abuse and sexual risk behaviors reported by the participants in the study, underreporting of these and other stigmatized behaviors would seem less likely.
Furthermore, the most likely experience of the respondents was to have been arrested for multiple types of crime. Although social capital was not directly measured by the assessments, the relatively poor economic circumstances and high levels of social instability reported by the study participants point to the lack of social capital as a potentially important aspect of syndemic theory. A few of the important research questions would appear to be: Unless and until there are widespread institutional efforts to collect sexual identification and behavioral data within criminal justice systems, behavioral researchers with access to gay and bisexual men might strongly consider including these questions in data collection instruments and qualitative research programs.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Psychoactive Drugs. Author manuscript; available in PMC Dec 1. Steven P. Kurtz , Ph. Find articles by Steven P. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Please address correspondence and reprint requests to Steven P. Kurtz, Ph. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Open in a separate window. Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors Table 2 shows current past 90 day substance use and sexual risk behaviors.
Arrest Histories Arrest histories by type of crime are shown in Table 3. High School Education or Less Homelessness History 5. Ecstasy 2.
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Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications; Recreational drug use and HIV-risk sexual behavior among men frequenting gay social venues. Sexual orientation and violent victimization: Hate crimes and intimate partner violence among gay and bisexual males in the United States. Intimate partner abuse among gay and bisexual men: Correlates and health outcomes.
Journal of Urban Health. Sexual sensation seeking: Scale development and predicting AIDS-risk behavior among homosexually active men. Journal of Personality Assessment. Sexual sensation seeking and sexual compulsivity scales: Reliability, validity, and predicting HIV risk behavior. Fatalism, current life satisfaction, and risk for HIV infection among gay and bisexual men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Cruising on the Internet highway. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. American Journal of Psychiatry. Whether you want a cheap but private place to crash after a night of partying, a chic luxury option to sip cocktails surrounded by fashionable people or a happening male-only hotel, Gay Miami as something for everyone!
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